Beacon, a public alternative school, soon became a national model for advocates of what modern educators "portfolioessment." Portfolios, a term derived from the carrying case of paintings or drawings that artists present as proof of their talents, are collections of student work. As graduation time neared each year at .For Edutopia, "What Works in Public Education" boils down to six "core principles": comprehensiveessment, integrated stu.s, project-based learning, social and A 1995 RAND report on a statewide program in Vermont concluded that portfolioessment "has been largely unsuccessful so far in meeting its goal of .Lost at Sea. Early 20th century Progressive reformers established elected school boards as a means of shielding public school systems from the politics and patronage of corrupt city governments. Citizens, rather than political dons or their favored appointees, would govern the community 's schools with the community 's .Teachers most commonly received training on cooperative learning 71 percent of teachers , interdisciplinary instruction 50 percent , higher-order thinking skills 47 percent , and portfolioessment 39 percent . Science teachers were asked about 11 types of professional development. They most commonly received .